Major Australian Literary Journals and Magazines

Below, in no particular order, are links to the major Australian literary journals and magazines currently accepting submissions, and a little information on each. I’ve only included those that are reasonably well-known and feature at least two pieces of unsolicited fiction per issue. Even though most of the information is from the publications’ websites and/or current issues (as of 24 June, 2014), be sure to read their style guide and submission guidelines yourself before submitting your work. I also recommend reading a couple of recent issues to identify emerging trends and see if they’ve recently published a story similar to yours. As you’ll see, most don’t pay very well compared to non-fiction, and most take a while to reply to submissions, but having a story in any of these is sure to help your writing career.

If I’ve missed any of your favourites, please don’t hesitate to say so in a comment and include a web address if possible. Thanks for reading and good luck: the short story industry is quite competitive at the moment.

MEANJIN QUARTERLY

Meanjin 2014 http://meanjin.com.au/ meanjin@unimelb.edu.au

Description: “Known primarily as a literary magazine, Meanjin reflect[s] the breadth of contemporary thinking, be it on literature, other art forms, or the broader issues of the times.”

Submission Guidelines:  “Fiction pieces should be approximately 2,000 to 4,000 words long. Word lengths are flexible in exceptional cases. For a sense of the kind of writing we publish in ‘Fiction’ visit our website.”

Submission Deadline: Submissions open.

Estimated Response Time: Three to four months.

Commission: “Meanjin pays 20c per word for prose published in the printed edition and $50 per printed page for poetry. Online-only rates are negotiated with the author.”

Submission Fee: $2.00.

Overland 215 Winter 2014

Overland 215 Winter 2014

OVERLAND LITERARY JOURNAL

http://overland.org.au/ overland@vu.edu.au

Description:Overland, the most radical of Australia’s long-standing literary and cultural magazines, celebrates its 60th year in 2014. Overland’s mission is to foster new, original and progressive work exploring the relationship between politics and culture, especially literature, and to bring that work to as many people as possible.”

Submission Guidelines:Overland publishes fiction by new and diverse writers (as well as some established authors) with a focus on work that is politically engaged, intellectually challenging and emotionally charged, across a range of genres and styles. We actively look for new work from emerging writers in regional Australia. We ask all authors to submit their work via an electronic submission manager. Though submissions by non-subscribers will be read, those by subscribers will be prioritised. You can support Overland and become a subscriber here.

Submission Deadline: Submissions open.

Estimated Response Time: “The quantity [of submissions] received means that the process can take some months.”

Commission: The minimum payment for stories published in the print journal is $400. Online contributors for this edition will be paid $100 per story.

EDITION 44 CULTURAL SOLUTIONS

EDITION 44
CULTURAL SOLUTIONS

GRIFFITH REVIEW

https://griffithreview.com/ griffithreview@griffith.edu.au
Description: “Griffith REVIEW has a proud tradition of creating space for new and emerging writers. [It] is written with intelligent, well-informed and curious readers in mind.”

Submission Guidelines: Each issue is themed. Check out the future editions page for details. Read For Writers: https://griffithreview.com/about/contact-griffith-review/#writers_guidelines “Download “Writer’s Guidelines.”

Submission Deadline: 6 February 2014.

Estimated Response Time: I couldn’t find one, but when I submitted a short story to them in 2010 it only took six weeks, which (in my experience) is quite good.

Commission: “We have a limited contributor budget; rates will be negotiated directly with the author upon acceptance.”

73.3, The naked writer

73.3, The naked writer

SOUTHERLY

http://southerlyjournal.com.au/ submissions@southerlyjournal.com.au

Description: Published three times a year, “Southerly is a journal of and for the discussion of Australian Literature and the publication of the best in new Australian writing.”

Submission Guidelines:  Read these guidelines before submitting. Hard copies can be sent to:
Southerly, c/- Department of English
University of Sydney
NSW 2006

or made online by filling out this form http://form.jotformpro.com/form/40580556102952 .

Submission Deadline: Submissions open.

Estimated Response Time: “A minimum twelve week turnaround on all work received. If you wish to enquire about the status of your submission, please wait until this twelve week period has lapsed.”

Commission: ?

Issue 22 2014

Issue 22 2014

THE LIFTED BROW

http://theliftedbrow.com/ fiction@theliftedbrow.com

Description: The Lifted Brow is a bimonthly magazine based in Melbourne. Every two months, the Brow publishes fiction, art, comics, and commentary on everything from maths to celebrity to design. It’s just meant to be fun and smart. The Brow relies on sales for survival, especially those lovely people who subscribe. For that reason, we prioritise submissions by subscribers. ”

Submission Guidelines: Submit your piece online here. Read submission guidelines first. “If you’re writing short short stories—stories under 100 words—please send fifteen to twenty at once, in a single document. We also love love love long fiction – 5000 words and above. Even 10,000. 15,000! There’s no limit on the amount of pieces you can submit, but be sensible. You can only submit one piece at a time.”

Submission Deadline: Submissions open.

Estimated Response Time: A few weeks.

Commission: See contributor rates.

Issue 15 2014

Issue 15 2014

MASCARA LITERARY REVIEW

http://mascarareview.com/ editor@mascarareview.com

Description: “A bi-annual literary journal … particularly interested in the work of contemporary Asian, Australian and Indigenous writers.”

Submission Guidelines:For fiction, submit one short story up to 3000 words, or for flash fiction send no more than 1000 words in a single Microsoft Word DOC. as an attachment, labelled with your name. Formatting must be in 12 point Times New Roman, 1.5 spaced. Please identify your attachment by surname. You need to write the word fiction in the subject title of your e-mail. Send your work to submissions@mascarareview.com.”

Submission Deadline: Submissions for issue 16 will be accepted from 1 June 2014 to 15 August 2014.

Estimated Response Time: They are only able to notify successful contributors. Response time is 3-6 months.

Commission: Payment is applicable to Australian fiction writers: $100.

Offset 2014

Offset 2014

OFFSET JOURNAL

http://offsetartsjournal.com/ offset.submissions@students.vu.edu.au

Description: “Offset Journal is Victoria University’s Creative Arts Journal celebrating and engaging with writers, musicians, filmmakers and creative artists.”

Submission Guidelines: “Offset is looking for creative pieces that celebrate and engage with the diverse cultures that enrich our communities. All submissions must have the completed Offset Submission Form available on the website and can be sent via email to offset.submissions@students.vu.edu.au.

Submission Deadline: Friday 6th June 2014 at 5pm. NOW CLOSED.

Estimated Response Time:  Every year between March and May.

Commission: None.

The June 2009 issue of Antipodes is a special issue on fear in Australian literature and film entitled Terror Australis Incognita?

The June 2009 issue of Antipodes is a special issue on fear in Australian literature and film entitled Terror Australis Incognita?

ANTIPODES

http://australianliterature.org/Antipodes_Home.htm

Description: Antipodes, the official journal of the American Association of Australasian Literary Studies, is published in June and December of each year.  The journal welcomes critical essays on any aspect of Australian and New Zealand literature and culture, and comparative studies are especially encouraged. Additionally, Antipodes welcomes short fiction, excerpts from novels, drama and poetry written by Australian and New Zealand authors.”

Submission Guidelines: “Fiction manuscripts should be sent to the Antipodes Fiction Editor, Jack Bennett, via email at mailto:jbennett@uoregon.edu”>jbennett@uoregon.edu, or via mail to
Jack Bennett
3285 Lincoln Street, Eugene
OR 97405.
Creative works submitted to Antipodes must not be previously published nor should they be under consideration elsewhere while being reviewed by the journal’s editorial board.While critical essays are welcomed from all authors, creative works should be submitted by Australian writers only.

Submission Deadline: “The June 2014 issue will be devoted to the pedagogy of Australian and New Zealand literature. Most of the prospective articles have already been invited but we do have room for one or two articles in specific pedagogical occasions (a course, a class, a syllabus) in the teaching of Antipodean literature.” 

Estimated Response Time: Unknown.

Commission: Each story in Antipodes is awarded US$100 and one complimentary copy of the journal, while poems are awarded US$50 and a copy of Antipodes.

The Looming Prospect of a Second Cold War

The Looming Prospect of a Second Cold War

QUADRANT

http://quadrant.org.au/

Description: Quadrant accepts unsolicited, previously unpublished articles that fit within its general profile of a journal of ideas, essays, literature, poetry and historical and political debate. Although it retains its founding bias towards cultural freedom, anti-totalitarianism and classical liberalism, its pages are open to any well-written and thoughtful contribution. Some of our writers are internationally renowned; some are previously unknown.

Submission Guidelines: Length of articles and stories varies between 1500 and 5000 words.

Submission Deadline: “Quadrant is published ten times a year, monthly, except for combined issues in January-February and July-August. Each year we publish more than 200 articles, 200 poems, 70 book reviews, 20 short stories and 75 letters to the editor.”

Estimated Response Time: Unknown.

Commission: Quadrant pays contributors for articles, reviews, poems and short fiction. All contributions should be accompanied by either an ABN number (and GST Status) or a Statement by a Supplier. Failure to do this may result in 48.5 per cent of any payment being withheld for remittance to the Australian Taxation Office. Overseas contributors are exempt from this requirement.

Aurealis #71

Aurealis #71

AUREALIS

http://www.aurealis.com.au/submissions.php editors@aurealis.com.au <editors@aurealis.com.au>

Description: “Aurealis is Australia’s premiere magazine of science fiction, fantasy and horror.”

Submission Guidelines:Aurealis is looking for science fiction, fantasy or horror short stories between 2000 and 8000 words. All types of science fiction, fantasy and horror that are of a “speculative” nature will be considered, but we do not want stories that are derivative in nature, particularly those based on TV series. Crime horror submissions should be directed to another market. Read specific guidelines here.

Submission Deadline: Submissions closed during December and January.

Estimated Response Time: Unknown.

Commission: Aurealis pays between $20 and $60 per 1000 words, depending on the level of government grants received, and payment will be made soon after the publication of the issue containing your story. Minimum payment is $20. You will also receive a free electronic copy of the issue containing your story.

ANALOG

http://www.analogsf.com/information/submissions.shtml

Analog 2014

Analog 2014

Description: “Basically, we publish science fiction stories.”

Submission Guidelines: “Our online submissions form for fiction asks for your name, email address, cover letter, story title, and story. Your cover letter should contain the length of your story, your publishing history and any other relevant information (e.g., if you send us a story about a medical disaster and you happen to be an emergency room nurse, mention that.). We ask for the same information for poetry. Please fill out a separate form for each poem submitted for consideration. All stories and poems should be in standard manuscript format and can be submitted in Word .DOC format. For information about standard formatting, see William Shunn’s guide to Proper Manuscript Format.

After you have submitted your work, a tracking number will be displayed and an automated email confirmation containing this information will be sent to you. If you have not received this email within twenty-four hours, please notify us by email. Your tracking number will allow you to monitor the status of your submission through our website, so please don’t lose it.

NOTE: Yahoo.com occasionally treats our email as spam, please keep an eye on your spam folder.”

Submission Deadline: Submissions open.

Estimated Response Time: “Our average response time runs about two to three months. If you have not heard from us in four months, you can query us about the submission at analog@dellmagazines.com.”

Commission: “Analog pays 7-9 cents per word for short stories up to 7,500 words, $525-675 for stories between 7,500 and 10,000 words, 7-7.5 cents per word for longer material, and 5 cents per word for serials. We prefer lengths between 2,000 and 7,000 words for shorts, 10,000-20,000 words for novelettes, and 40,000-80,000 for serials. Fact articles are paid for at the rate of 7 cents per word.”

The Big Issue 2014

The Big Issue 2014

THE BIG ISSUE

http://www.thebigissue.org.au/

Description: “The Big Issue is an independent magazine that publishes informative and entertaining articles on a huge variety of subjects including arts and entertainment, street culture, lifestyle and personal profiles. We are always looking for good-quality writers. The Big Issue is a not-for-profit organisation, set up to help people who have experienced homelessness, marginalisation and disadvantage. The magazine is sold for $6, with $3 going directly to the vendor.”

Submission Guidelines: “We  expect that you read The Big Issue, and have a good idea of the sorts of stories we like and the style of writing we prefer. Keep in mind that we are an independent publication and are thus able to do stories other magazines and papers might not be able to do.

As well as our core content (current affairs and weightier social issues), we’re also interested in stories focused on street culture and quirky, humorous or unusual topics. What we are looking for is good writing that helps us put a human face on all the issues we cover. Whether you want to contribute satire, hard news, investigative journalism or light-hearted pieces, the most important thing is clear writing and a compelling human perspective. Serious topics need to be tackled in such a way as to keep the reader interested – we encourage first-person, experience based pieces.”

Submission deadline: Submissions open.

Estimated Response Time: “Because we have a small editorial team it may be some time before we can respond to your submission.”

Commission: Because we are a not-for-profit organisation, we are unable to offer commercial pay rates. Our usual rate of pay for features and news stories is 20 cents a word. We don’t guarantee payment until the piece is published, and payment is made according to the price agreed upon at the time it is commissioned.”

Wet Ink issue 17

Wet Ink issue 17

WET INK

http://wetink.com.au/ contact@wetink.com.au 

Description: Wet Ink is put together by a passionate team of writers and a designer who decided to do something about the lack of opportunities for writers to publish their short works and readers to access them. Inside each issue you’ll find fiction, poetry and creative non-fiction, interviews, photography, book reviews and more. It’s the place to discover some of today’s best up-and-coming talent, as well as new works by established authors.”

Submission Guidelines: “Send no more than three submissions. Only hard copies considered. Put your name on the cover sheet but NOT on the work. Text should be double spaced in Times New Roman 12pt. No word limit—although the longer a piece is, the more outstanding it needs to be to replace two or three shorter. Also interested in shorter pieces (to 500 words) that are funny, snappy, experimental or thought-provoking.” (Full guide here).

Submission deadline: NO LONGER ACCEPTING SUBMISSIONS.

Estimated Response Time: Four months.

Commission: Under 1500 words $70, above 1500 words $120.

LinkedIn

Social media applications have emerged as dominant forces in the communications industry and are penetrating the lives of millions of everyday people. But defining what is and what isn’t social media and why they are popular is an ongoing challenge. We hope to analyse one such application, LinkedIn, explain how, why and when it was created; who the primary users are and where they are from; and relate its features to “the seven functional blocks of social media” as identified by Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre (2011). We will end with a conclusion that states whether, or not, LinkedIn is a form of social media and where it is placed in this highly competitive industry.

In December of 2003, Reid Hoffman gathered together a group of former colleagues from his days at SocialNet and Paypal (Alan Blue, Jean-Luc Valliant, Eric Ly and Konstantin Guericke) to start work on a new idea. Hoffman had thought about how the world was changing in terms of how we all go about our work life and career, and what the internet means as an implication of that. He told a conference at the Stanford GSB Encore Award in 2012 that one of the ways you come up with ideas is to look at technology trends and think how that trend is going to open up market opportunities and transformative products with the hope of disrupting industries. So, when he was coming up with the idea of LinkedIn,  ”The thought was that everyone is going to need a platform of identity, their network – not just to navigate career transitions…, but also in the way they manage their whole work life – how they find the right kind of resources in order to solve professional problems.”  As entrepreneurs their mantra was “minimal viable product”, so it was a case of getting it launched as quickly as possible, and then growing it from there, resulting in LinkedIn being launched on the 5th of May, 2003. At this point it was a very basic networking site, that some users struggled to see the value in.  Pickup was slower than expected, and by the end of the first month in operation there were only 4,500 registered users. (A “guess how many members after the first week” competition between the founding members had them all over estimating by a long way.)

internalcontest

A disappointing start didn’t stop it from showing enough promise that investors started getting involved. The company basically started with Hoffman as the financier, but in November of 2003, Sequoia Capital invested $4.7 million. Lots of other investments took place over the years and the company reached profitability in 2006. In 2011 LinkedIn was publicly listed on the New York Stock Exchange.  Besides being publicly held, it raises money through revenues coming from talent solutions (for recruiters), marketing solutions and premium subscription products.

LinkedIn may have started out slower than its founders were expecting, but didn’t take long for the website to start growing exponentially, and it recently passed the 238 million member milestone and is still growing at a rate of 2 new members per second. LinkedIn is used in over 200 countries and territories worldwide, and is currently available in twenty languages: English, Czech, Danish, Dutch, French, German, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Tagalog and Turkish.

geography

While it started in the USA, 65% of its users live outside its home country. More than four million of those are in Australia. When you consider Australia’s population and the fact that LinkedIn is a professional rather than a social network, that is an extraordinary number of Australian users. The fastest growing demographic for LinkedIn currently, is students like us, with 30 million students and recent graduates registered.

After the initial ‘just get it out there’ attitude that saw a site that some users saw no value in, LinkedIn began adding features regularly, to the point that the 2013 version is unrecognisable from that initial launch product. In late 2003  address book uploads were introduced, followed by new features like Groups in 2004. In 2006, public profiles were launched and core features like Recommendations and People You May Know were introduced, followed by LinkedIn Answers in 2007. The first enterprise application, LinkedIn Recruiter, a tool for corporate recruiting teams to find job candidates from the LinkedIn network was launched in 2008.

In 2009 LinkedIn launched its API development platform so that outside developers can create widgets and apps to integrate with LinkedIn. An article, by Leena Rao, titled ‘An Ecosystem Is Born: LinkedIn Opens Up API’, on the website techcrunch.com, suggested that by opening up its platform for developers to create third-party applications, LinkedIn’s 50 million membership base could grow rapidly. It was an excellent prediction in hindsight; LinkedIn’s members will probably hit 250 million by the end of 2013.

fortunemag

In 2010, LinkedIn really hit ‘the big time’ with a Fortune Magazine front cover and feature article. At the time the membership number was about 60 million. Speaking of ‘the big time’, the company also opened up a new office in the Empire State Building in 2010. Besides launching on the NYSE, 2011 is the year Linked in unveiled its LinkedIn Today news feed. This is a personalised news feed that gives the user links to relevant business related blog posts and articles (which you can then share with your network), as well as what is going on in your network. This is also where other people see what you are up to, so when you get recommended for something, everyone in your network gets that update in their feed. 2011 was also the year of the introduction of ‘Apply with LinkedIn’, a widget that allows users to apply for jobs directly from LinkedIn.

2012 was a year of transformation for LinkedIn with a complete re-architecture of the site. The company is developing based on three concepts: simplify, grow, every day. One of the major new features of 2012 is the introduction of Influencers, which gives you  the ability to follow more than 250 global thought leaders, like Barrack Obama, Gary Vaynerchuk and Tony Robbins. Richard Branson became the first LinkedIn Influencer to amass more than 1 million followers.

In April, an Ipad app was launched, and then, in September we saw the release of my favourite LinkedIn feature, Endorsements, because who doesn’t like a bit of validation from your peers?

Even with such incredible success, LinkedIn has grand plans for the future. At that Stanford GSB Encore Award, CEO, Jeff Weiner, outlined where he thinks LinkedIn is heading over the next 5 years.

“Looking forward, Linked in is in a unique position to develop the economic graph (as opposed to the social and professional graph) –  not just about connecting professionals, but is a digital representation or manifestation of every economic opportunity in the world, both full time and temporary. The skills required to get those opportunities, the companies offering those opportunities, the ability to map who you know at those companies up to 2 degrees, a digital profile for every one of the 3.3 billion people in the global workforce, and the ability to overlay all of the professional knowledge shared by those individuals. And then to allow those nodes on the economic graph to connect and take the friction out of the flows of intellectual capital, working capital, human capital. And you think about the power of that and what can be done with the power of the global economy – that is what the long term vision is all about.”

Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre (2011, pp243-248) propose “the honeycomb of social media” and “the seven functional blocks of social media”. They identify seven key functions users experience, in varying degrees, while interacting with different social media platforms: identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation and groups. LinkedIn includes a number of these functions, lead the industry on a few of them for a long time, but completely ignores others.

What Makes Social Media, Social Media

Identity refers to how much information users of a given social media platform are able to display about themselves. The information can include basic details like one’s name, age, gender, profession and country of origin; or more intimate details like date of birth, relationship status and current location. (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre (2011, pp243-244)

LinkedIn encourages users to display their real names, education and vocational history, current employment, work-related skills, general location and profession. In fact, LinkedIn was one of the original social media platforms to place a heavy emphasis on education and employment, and they still (arguably) lead the industry in this area. Another unique and defining feature of LinkedIn allows users to list up to 50 skills/expertise and rate their proficiency in them from 1-10.

While users are able to display a profile picture and share ‘updates’ about themselves (which may unintentionally reveal information about their sexuality, relationship status and other intimate details), there is not a specific area for this information on LinkedIn, further promoting professionalism and a focus on linking with potential employers and other users in the same field of expertise.

emanuellinkedin

As you will see from Emanuel Cachia’s LinkedIn profile located at http://www.linkedin.com/pub/emanuel-cachia/51/18b/679, he has chosen to share a lot of information about his working history and qualifications in an attempt to attract potential clients to his editing business. His profile picture is generic, focusing on his face, and his updates reveal little of his personal life. Thus, his profile and use of LinkedIn conforms to the platform’s etiquette.

The idea of conversations covers the ability for users to contact each other with private and/or public messages, often in real-time. Users can talk about anything and everything, and often do on some social media networks (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre (2011, p244).

LinkedIn allows connected users to send private messages to each other and/or groups of people, just like the email system. One can contact users outside of their established LinkedIn network via a system dubbed ‘InMail’, however, there is a fee associated with this service. For AUD$24.95 per month, users can create a business account and send 3 such InMails every month, or 25 InMails per month by paying a yearly fee of AUD$875.40.

linkedin plans

This pay wall reduces spam, bullying and harassment, and is a great, although very restrictive way to monetise the site. Given the cost of the service, it must be primarily aimed at large businesses, prospective employers and employment agencies.

Sharing is the process of receiving, sending, distributing and promoting content on social media sites that often bring users together for specific purposes and/or interests. This content can include images (Flickr), videos (YouTube), discount offers (Groupon), book recommendations (GoodReads), self-published eBooks (WattPad), music (SoundCloud), and personal experiences and observations (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre (2011, p245). The most popular social media icons, Facebook and Twitter, allow users to share images, videos and text in the one place, using a single, intuitive user interface.

Most established LinkedIn users share their professional and educational activities as they happen, using LinkedIn as an evolving and persistently viewable resume.

karl ervine

Many users also promote their other products and interests such as articles and how-to guides published on blogs and websites. LinkedIn also uses an ‘update feed’ to automatically notifies users when people they are linked to update their profile.

tuanhoupdate

Photos can be attached to status updates, but videos cannot be shared directly through LinkedIn. Users must instead post the content on an external site and paste the link in the update. Status updates with links to YouTube clips, and images on some blog sites like Blogger and WordPress automatically insert a thumbnail of the content in the update.

blogggerpost

LinkedIn also allows users to share shortened versions of their updates with their followers on Twitter via a ‘share with’ checkbox at the bottom of the message window, but does not support sharing to other social media sites. This is no doubt an attempt to differentiate the LinkedIn platform from casual sites like Facebook, Tumbler and Flickr.

twitterupdate

The presence functional block refers to users being able to display their location, and indicate when they are and aren’t available for a conversation. Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre (2011, pp245-246) also discuss ‘presence-based platforms’ like FourSquare, Trapster and Gowalla, which allow users to share events based on the location of the activity.

LinkedIn doesn’t allow users to post their current location (other than their home town), nor notify other users of their availability to chat.

Facebookchat

We think the latter would be a great addition, preferably integrated with a video chat platform like Skype.

The functional block titled relationships involves users being able to relate to each other and form formal, informal, casual, transient or intimate relationships based on their interests and “converse, share objects of sociality, meet up, or simply just list each other as a friend or fan” (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre, 2011, p246).

While Boyd and Ellison argue users are “primarily communicating with people who are already a part of their extended social network” (2007, p2), they and many other communication experts believe some users seek and make meaningful connections with people they have never met via social media.

LinkedIn emphasises the way people are connected and displays the ‘degrees of separation’ between users, rather than emphasising how many people are in a user’s network. It’s not about how many connections you have on LinkedIn, but how close you are. A few meaningful relationships with trustworthy and credible people you know are more preferable to a lot of distant (4th or 5th degree) connections.

2nddegreeconnection

degreeconnection

The relationships in LinkedIn are heavily moderated and interactions are primarily concerned with expanding professional networks and promoting activities, jobs and products.

Reputations relate to the trustworthiness of users and their content often by a voting system like YouTube’s ‘thumbs up’ or ‘thumbs down’ poll for every video. The more thumbs up and less thumbs down a YouTuber and their content has, the more credible and recommended the user becomes (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre, 2011, p247).

Users are able to ‘endorse’ other users’ skills and leave notes of recommendation, or dissatisfaction with completed work. If a user has been endorsed in a skill by a number of other, reputable users, resulting in a fair amount of positive feedback, then one can assume the user is trustworthy and credible.

endorsement

LinkedIn incorporates an extra level of protection against spammers and scammers by mandating that new accounts be ‘validated’ by established community members before the new user can access certain features like direct messaging and connection requests. These measures have increased the reliability of LinkedIn and the users who use it positively.

When Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre refer to the groups functional block (2011, pp247-248), they are describing the way a given social media allows users to form socially identifiable groups and subgroups similar to clubs and organisations in the physical world. They say “the more ‘social’ a network becomes, the bigger the group of friends, followers and contacts.” If enough people are interested in sharing their interest in an activity, that activity will have a group represented in social media.

The group functional block also refers to social media platforms allowing users to sort other users into categories based on topics of interest or relationships. Even though anthropologist Robin Dunbar (1992) proposes that humans can manage a maximum of around 150 relationships at any given time, many social media platforms allow users to create an unlimited amount of custom-named groups, and theoretically increase the number of relationships they can humanly manage.

Twitterlist

LinkedIn allows users to sort other profiles in their ‘profile organizer’, but this is only accessible to premium account holders. Sorting connections based on industry, profession, skills and appropriateness for a vacant position within a company would be a great feature, but many ‘basic’ users are missing out on this functionality.

premiumfilters

LinkedIn is most definitely a social media application. It does some things well, and completely ignores others, but there is no doubt that LinkedIn has an enormous following and is leading the social media industry in many ways. While some account holders seem to use LinkedIn for social purposes, the vast majority of user profiles focus on information about their professional development, education and employment history, making LinkedIn the industry-leading social media application for professionals, job seekers, employees, employment agencies and business owners.

References
Boyd, D. & Ellison, N 2007, ‘Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol. 13, no. 1, viewed 12 September 2013, <http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html>.

CNN Money 2010, ‘How LinkedIn will Fire up your Career’, viewed 18 September 2013, <http://money.cnn.com/2010/03/24/technology/linkedin_social_networking.fortune/>.

Dunbar, R. I. M. 1992, ‘Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates’. Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 469—493, viewed 12 September 2013, <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004724849290081J>.

Fitzsimmons, C 2013, ‘4 million members and counting: LinkedIn Australia finds connections get you places’, Business Review Weekly, viewed 18 September 2013, <http://www.brw.com.au/p/business/million_members_places_counting_Igi7nirJjn6NfV7KexTv0H>.

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